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WHaTeR: Work Packages

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Site: WHaTeR - Water Harvesting Technologies Revisited
Course: WHaTeR - Water Harvesting Technologies Revisited
Book: WHaTeR: Work Packages
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Date: Thursday, 19 October 2017, 7:20 AM

WP1:

Project management, coordination and methodology development


 

 

Overview:

Project management and coordination is the task of the Programme Management Office (PMO) which will be composed of the project director (PMO head), the project coordinator and the secretariat. The PMO will be responsible for the centralized and coordinated management and the day-to-day running of the project. It will oversee the financial administration and the reporting to the European Commission, ensure adequate synchronization of the work packages and associated methodologies, smooth communication among work package leaders and partners, and communicate project findings to relevant stakeholders, policy makers and the European Commission. The main outputs of the PMO will be a project website and e-newsletters, progress reports to the EU, a communication plan, and two workshops (kick off, methodology), audiovisual material, and a midterm-review report.

Objectives:

• to perform project management and coordination
• to manage the consortium
• to communicate to WP leaders, steering group members, stakeholders
• to gather inputs from relevant stakeholders
• to monitor project progress, work packages’ synchronization, assure quality
• to coordinate all reports for the Commission
• to submit cost statements and audits
• to communicate project findings to stakeholder groups

Deliverables:

D1.1) Summary report on kick off workshop: A concised report will be written on issues discussed and/or decisions taken on organizational matters, communication plan, selection of members for advisory group, RTD protocol for WHT revisits, and coordination and divsion of tasks for data gathering by consortium members during WHT revisits. [month 2]


D1.2) Website: A project website will be developed and maintained to inform the general public and stakeholders about project aims, activities and findings, provide a discussion platform and a facilty to exchange publications and documents for consortium partners and relevant stakeholders. The website also serves as a means for coordination and management of project activities with a specific communication tool shared among consortium members only. [month 3]

D1.3) Summary report on situation and methodology workshop: A concised report will be written on issues discussed and plans made during the workshop related to, e.g., operational and network matters, refinement of follow-up action research based on WHT site revisits, Work Packages' synchronization, coordination of consortium member tasks and methodologies for cross-country and within-country activities (networking,dissemination, data gathering and knowledge exchange for the various Work Packages, refinement of content of stakeholder workshops, and clustering activities). [month 13]


D1.4) Final project evaluation report: A concised internal evaluation report will be written based on interim evaluation reports on the performed management, coordination, communication and RTD activities throughout the project. [month 48]

Lead Institution:

Centre for International Cooperation, VU University Amsterdam (VUA-CIS)

WP Leader:

Denyse Snelder - Project Coordinator

Sabina Di Prima - Project Manager

WP2:

WHT revisit and situation analysis


Overview:

The work package builds on previous WHT studies by the consortium members within Sub-Saharan Africa. The main study in question was on “Sub-Saharan Water Harvesting” carried out by Critchley and colleagues (VUA) for the World Bank between 1987 and 1989 (Critchley et al 1992). This Work Package comprise visits to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and documented experience with newly introduced, as well as indigenous, systems of water harvesting. Other sites previously studied and reported in the literature will also be included, bringing the total number of countries to be visited to 15. The concept is simple: we already have considerable information, much of it in-house, on what the situation with various WHTs was in the past; so let us re-visit these sites, re-study, and learn from what has happened over the years.


Objectives:

• To re-visit and re-examine previous study sites of WHT systems in Sub-Saharan Africa
• To assess sites for evidence of change, inter alia evolution of technologies and adoption
• To analyse these changes to inform the programme process through the work packages

Deliverables:

D2.1) Synthesis report on WHT revisits: A synthesis report based on the analysis and integration of the interim reports on WHT revisits including the major conclusions discussed and presented during the situation and methology workshop in month 11 [month 12]

Lead Institution:

Centre for International Cooperation, VU University Amsterdam (VUA-CIS)

WP Leader:

William Critchley

WP3:

Stakeholder interaction and communication


Overview:

A range of activities will be conducted within the framework of this work packages including the mapping of stakeholders and determination of their networking framework and capacity, the assessment of the current communication status for individual stakeholders and effects on other stakeholders. The activities will organized in close cooperation with the partners in the four target countries and the Work Package on uptake and upscaling of WHTs and addresses the design of guidelines and a framework for stakeholder interaction and communication. Interaction and coordination among consortium partners will be regularly organized through e-conference meetings. The methodology will be fine-tuned and presented during the start-off and methodology workshops.


Partner Role 

The Southern and Eastern Africa Rainwater Network (SEARNET), hosted by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) in Kenya, has been actively involved in the Global Water Partnership Associated Programme entitled “A Network for Green water Harvesting in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) and South Asia (SA)” since 2001. The programme specifically focussed on evaluation, documentation and dissemination of viable WHTs and approaches practiced in 18 countries of ESA and SA regions (e.g., Malesu et al 2007a,Oduor and Gadain 2007). SEARNET plays an important role in the dissemination of the results of this programme to key stakeholders including researchers, governments, academics, development agencies and communities using various communication methods among which two websites (www.searnet.org and www.rainwaterharvesting.org), the quarterly SEARNET briefs newsletter; the annual SEARNET conference and other international forums such as Stockholm Water Week and the African Water Week; policy seminars with politicians; printed handbooks and manuals (Malesu et al 2007b, 2007c). The network includes 12 registered national Rain Water Harvesting associations as nodes for cross fertilization of knowledge and experience in WHTs. WHaTeR will thus benefit from lessons learnt on varied media used in interactions for project upscaling,or among various national and sub-continental bodies in Eastern and Southern Africa.

Objectives:

• To investigate and assess means of interaction and communication currently used by rainwater harvesting practitioners and stakeholders
• To determine how these communication channels influence or affect the upscaling of best WHT practices
• To produce recommendations for optimizing WHT stakeholder interaction and communication in order to facilitate WHT upscaling and uptake

Deliverables:

D3.1) Factsheet on WHT stakeholders: A factsheet will be produced that summarizes the initial results on WHT stakeholder interaction and communication and their effects on WHT upscaling and uptake [month 24]


D3.2) Synthesis report on WHT stakeholders: A synthesis report on WHT stakeholder interaction and communication and their effects on WHT upscaling and uptake will be written. [month 42]


Lead Institution:

Southern and Eastern Africa Rainwater Network (SearNet)


WP Leader:

Maimbo Malesu

WP4:

Environmental sustainability


Overview:

This work package will be carried out in close collaboration with the consortium partners to determine joint protocols and tools for RTD aimed at assessments of potential WHT impacts on environmental sustainability,catchment hydrology and ecosystem services at selected pilot sites, with Phase 2a starting with pilot catchments in Tanzania and South Africa and Phase 2b extending to other sites in Burkina Faso and Ethiopia. The main research questions addressed by WP4 are:
• What are the impacts on within catchment and on downstream catchment water quantity and quality when water harvesting interventions are maximized?
• Can water productivities be improved, i.e., more biomass for similar quantity of water, with substantial water harvesting technology interventions at a landscape scale?
• Are there tools and minimum sets of information needed to carry out hydrological impact assessments of WHT interventions at the landscape scale (10-1000 km2)
• What other ecosystems services, particularly those linked to river flow and sedimentation, may be enhanced or reduced due to WHT implementation?


Objectives:

This work package will contribute to the overall project objectives by helping to develop sustainable WHTs. Its specific objectives are to:
• Coordinate the impacts and potential trade off assessments of WHTs on catchment water quantity and quality,based on upstream-downstream interactions in selected catchments of the case study countries (in cooperation with Work Package 8, 11 and 12)
• Synthesise, coordinate and lead the assessment of environmental sustainability implications of WHT systems by determining additional ecosystems service synergies and/or trade-offs emerging from WHTs for meso-scale watersheds (10-1000 km2) for different environmental settings (in cooperation with Work Package 8 and 12)

Deliverables:

D4.1) Factsheet Emvironmental sustainability: A factsheet will be produced describing the RTD activities on environmental sustainability and their first results. [month 24]

D4.2) Peer-review paper on the impacts of WHT adoption on catchment hydrology: A first peer-reviewed paper will be written based on research on the impacts of WHT adoption on catchment hydrology [month 36]

D4.3) Peer-review paper on the impacts of WHT adoption on water-dependent ecosystem services: A second peer-review paper will be finalized based on research on the impacts of WHT adoption on water-dependent ecosystem services [month 36]

D4.4) Synthesis report on environmental sustainability with policy recommendations: A synthesis report on WHT's environmental sustainability will be written including policy recommendations related to the impacts of WHT adoption on catchchment hydrology and ecosystem services [month 42]


Lead Institution:

Stockholm Resilience Centre (SRC)

WP Leader:

Jennie Barron

WP5:

Livelihood improvement


Overview:

Following on from the extensive rapid assessment of WHT impacts conducted under Work Package 2, this work package will deliver in-depth investigations of livelihoods at the four case study sites. It will follow methods previously adopted by Hope et al (2004, 2008) and in broader studies of the impact of agricultural innovation(e.g. Adato and Meinzen-Dick 2002) all of which follow the DfID sustainable livelihoods framework (DfID 2001)as a device for analysing the livelihoods system at household level. The research questions that will be addressed by WP5 are:
• What is the evidence for WHT delivering improvements to livelihoods of rural communities?
• Does promotion of WHT respond to the needs of beneficiaries (particularly with respect to food and water security)?
• What should be done in designing future WHT initiatives to deliver improvements to livelihoods of rural communities?


Objectives:

This work package will support, extend and add value to the objectives and RTD activities conducted under Work Packages 9, 10, 11 and 12. It will contribute to the overall objectives by:
• Delivering understanding of the extent to which the adoption of WHT has improved livelihoods of rural communities;
• Helping define criteria for designing WHT innovations and promoting uptake in the context of local and regional economic development.

Deliverables:

D5.1) Factsheet livelihood improvement: A factsheet will be produced describing the RTD activities on livelihood improvement and their first results. [month 24]


D5.2) Paper on household survey of livelihoods and WHT impact: A paper will be written based on household survey of livelihoods and impacts of WHT adoption. [month 30]


D5.3) Paper on livelihoods and impact of WHT adoption on downstream communities: A paper will be written on livelihoods and impacts of WHT adoption on downstream communicaties. [month 36]


D5.4) Synthesis report on livelihood improvement with policy recommendations: A synthesis report on livelihood improvement will be written including policy recommendations for improving livelihoods through WHT adoption[month 42]


Lead Institution:

University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (UNEW)


WP Leader:

Liz Oughton

WP6:

Technological improvement


Overview:

Following on from the extensive review of technical innovations in water harvesting systems visited under Work Package 2, this work package will deliver in-depth investigations of technical performance in the four case study countries. An action-research approach will be adopted in which the research team become participant observers. The research questions that will be addressed by WP6 are:
• How successful are alternative WHT innovations in increasing availability/ reliability of water and raising agricultural productivity through low-cost systems of water control?
• What is the evidence that alternative models of WHT development deliver more or less sustainable outcomes in the context of dynamic global and regional pressures (climate change, population, urbanisation etc.)?
• What can be done to support knowledge transfer and innovation in order to promote adoption of appropriate water management technologies and practices?


Objectives:

This work package will contribute to the overall objectives by:
• Delivering understanding of the technical performance of water harvesting systems.
• Helping define criteria for assessing knowledge and technical capacity of beneficiaries.
• Integrating lessons from case studies under different hydrological, biological and socio-economic conditions in order to devise guidelines for promoting innovative appropriate WHTs.

The specific objectives of WP6 are to:
• Identify technology-related constraints for WHT uptake and adoption (in cooperation with Work Packages 2, 3 and 7)
• Identify and evaluate WHT improvements that contribute to resolution of technology-related constraints (in cooperation with Work Packages 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12)
• Exchange acquired knowledge on WHT improvement for uptake and upscaling to stakeholders and consortium partners of Work Packages 3, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 12


Deliverables:

D6.1) Factsheet technical performance: A factsheet will be produced describing the RTD activities on technical performance of WHTs and their first results. [month 24]

D6.2) Paper on the technical performance of WHT at the study sites: A paper on the technical performance of WHT at the study sites in the four target countries will be written [month 36]

D6.3) Report on WHT knowledge transfer and innovation systems at the study sites: A paper on WHT knowledge transfer and innovation systems at the study sites in the four target countries will be written. [month
36]

D6.4) Synthesis report on technological improvement with policy recommendations: Synthesis report on technological improvement of WHT will be written including policy recommendations [month 42]


Lead Institution:

University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (UNEW)


WP Leader:

John Gowing

WP7:

Uptake and upscaling of WHT


Overview:

To assess the factors determining the lack of uptake and up-scaling of WHT at household and community scale,a methodological framework will be developed to account for the different factors that influence farm-household decision-making, and decision-making at community scale. The methodological framework will built on the lessons learned in Work Package 2, specifically regarding the factors determining successful uptake and upscaling of WHT. To assess the relative importance of the different factors, data will be collected at household and community level and a statistical analysis will be conducted to determine the size of the relative effects.Before doing so, the four study sites in the case study countries will be characterized, using explanatory variables from the literature and the re-visits to determine the costs and benefits of WHT investments and the agro-hydrological, socio-economic and institutional factors influencing WHT uptake. Finally, the work package will synthesize the main lessons and come up with a set of policy recommendations to support uptake and up-scaling of WHT in different African contexts. There will be close cooperation in the conduct of activities with all consortium partners, in particular those in the case study countries and of Work Packages 3 and 8.

The main research questions that will be addressed by WP7 are:
• What are the most critical barriers (economic, financing, institutional, social and environmental) to the up-take and scaling-up of WHT technologies and practices?
• How do these barriers differ according to hydrological, biological and socio-economic context?
• What can be done to support the uptake and scaling-up of WHT in different African contexts?


Objectives:

This work package will contribute (in close cooperation with Work Packages 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) to the overall objectives of the project by helping define criteria for:
• Transferring various water harvesting technologies in different hydrological, biological and socio-economic conditions (upscaling);
• Integrating the various water harvesting technologies in the context of local and regional economical development (uptake).

Deliverables:

D7.1) Factsheet uptake and upscaling: A factsheet will be produced describing the RTD activities on upscaling and uptaking and their first results. [month 24]


D7.2) Paper on the characterization of the study sites in target countries: A paper on characterization of the study sites in the four target countries will be written [month 30]


D7.3) Paper on WHT uptake and upscaling: A paper on WHT uptake and upscaling based on household surveys in the four target countries will be written [month 36]


D7.4) Synthesis report on WHT uptake and upscaling with policy recommendations: Synthesis report will be written describing and discussing the opportunities and barriers to WHT uptake and upscaling in the four target countries including policy recommendations [month 42]


Lead Institution:

Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam (VUA-IVM)

WP Leader:

Jetske Bouma

WP8:

Global and regional impacts


Overview:

This work package will be carried out in close collaboration with in particular Work Package 7 on uptake and upscaling, and drawing from all partners in the project to determine macro-scale (national, sub-continental,global) drivers of change relevant for the WHT upscaling. The Work Package will be carried out with one Post-doc based at Stockholm Resilience Centre (SRC) and senior researchers at SRC jointly with consortium partners. The methodology will be using scenario analyses coupled with global to regional water balance and trade models, in close consultation with project partners and stakeholders to ensure relevance . In particular the outputs will serve for policy and decision support outputs in Work Package 14.The main research questions that will be addressed by WP8 are:
• What are the global/regional drivers that impact on investments in WHT in Sub-Sahara Africa?
• In which agro-climatic zones do WHTs have the greatest opportunity and comparative advantage over other crop production increasing strategies?
• Will the advantages of WHT be strengthened or dis-abled if global/regional drivers of change alter?
• What roles can policy and decision-making play in WHT uptake in view of global and national change?


Objectives:

This work package will contribute to the overall objectives of the project to develop WHTs that address multiple development targets by:
• Analysing multiple potential drivers of change that may affect WHT investment, uptake and feasibility,
• Accounting for multiple benefits and trade-offs when comparing WHT opportunities with alternative technology investments
• Assessing implications of WHT in view of climate change adaptation strategies

Deliverables:

D8.1) Factsheet global and regional impacts: A factsheet will be produced describing the RTD activities on global and regional impacts and their first results. [month 24]

D8.2) Paper on global and regional drivers of change and their effects on WHTs: A paper on global and regional drivers of change and their effects on WHTs will be written [month 30]

D8.3) Peer review paper and technical report on WHT opportunities for different agro-climatic zones: A peer review paper and technical report on WHT opportunities for different agro-climatic zones will be written including expected implications of climate change and other drivers of change [month 42]

D8.4) A synthesis report on global and regional impact with policy recommentations: A global and regional impact synthesis report with policy recommentations will be written [month 42]


Lead Institution:

Stockholm Resilience Centre (SRC)


WP Leader:

Jennie Barron

WP9:

Burkina Faso integrated case study

Overview:

The majority of the population in Burkina Faso is small-scale farmers rely on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihoods. However, the average rainfall between 400 to 1000 mm per year is very variable over time and space and this makes rain-fed agriculture a risky enterprise. In addition, about 30% of the rainfall is lost in soil surface runoff reducing the availability of water to crops. Soils have also very low fertility thus limiting nutrient availability to crops. Crop failure is the consequence of low rainfall but also the effect of soil degradation caused by inappropriate management practices. Food security is under threat due to the low water availability,increasing soil degradation and scarcity of cultivable lands. To mitigate the negative effects of these constraints,water and nutrients management technologies (WNMTs) have been developed on station and on-farm (e.g.,Fosu et al 2008, Ouattarra et al 2006, 2007, Sawadogo-Kabore et al 2008, Zougmoré et al 2000). Research in last decades has put efforts into the development of WHTs (e.g. the Zai system, stone bounds and ridges) in the drier areas of Burkina Faso. However, results have clearly demonstrated that high yields can be obtained through the combination of WHTs and integrated nutrient management. Refinement and upscaling of WNMTs are needed to increase crop production and food security at the farmers’ level.

This work package is in line with this theme and will contribute to promote a more integrated natural resource management to balance human and environmental dimension of development in Burkina Faso. Its purpose is to integrate soil, water, and nutrient management techniques into options that enhance agricultural productivity while mitigating environmental challenges. On-farm experiments will be undertaken using a participatory approach, whereas WNMTs will be selected taking into account the country’s climatic zones. One of the key activities, after the rapid assessment by revisits of WHT sites for Work Package 2,will be the on-farm testing and evaluation of WNMTs and WHTs, jointly with farmers’ organizations and in cooperation with NGOs. The on-farm testing will be done in two climatic zones, i.e., the 700-900 mm and the more than 900 mm annual rainfall zones (including Siglé, Sabou Péni and Bobo Dioulasso districts).Small-scale WHTs like the Zai pits and half moons will be tested in the 700-900 mm rainfall zone where degraded soils (zippele) are common and mechanization level is low. In the more than 900 mm rainfall zone,where agricultural mechanization levels are generally high (> 60%), contour ploughing with nutrient management will be investigated. Different types of food and cash crops planted in different cropping systems (e.g.,rotation,association) will be used in combination with WNMTs to determine optimal synergies of WHTs with farming systems. The overall approach will be participatory with strong stakeholders’ interaction. The methodology will be using scenario analyses coupled with global to regional water balance and trade models, in close consultation with project partners and stakeholders to ensure relevance. In particular the outputs will serve for policy and decision support outputs in Work Package 3.

Objectives:

The specific objectives of WP9 are:
• To analyse water and nutrient interactions and derive sustainable water and nutrient management for WHT-based farming systems (in cooperation with Work Packages 4 and 6)
• To conduct participatory on-farm testing of selected and refined WHTs
• To assess the integrated effects of (refined) WHTs on disaster reduction, livelihood improvement and food security (in cooperation with Work Package 5 and 8)
• To contribute to knowledge on the uptake and upscaling of WHTs (in cooperation with Work Package 7)
The overall partnership of the project will allow exchanges in experiences and results analysis for contributing to the main objective of the project regarding the definition of guidelines and criteria for the development of innovative WHTs.

Deliverables:

D9.1) Factsheet Burkina Faso: A factsheet will be produced describing the RTD activities on water harvesting technologies and their first results. [month 24]


D9.2) Synthesis report with WHT guidelines: A synthesis report will be written on the impact of (refined) WHTs on water and nutrient management, disaster reduction, livelihood improvement and food security in Burkina Faso. The report includes guidelines and standards for sustainable WHTs. [month 42]

Lead Institution:

Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA)

WP Leader:

Korodjouma Ouattara

WP10:

Ethiopia integrated case study


Overview:

Over the last years, a wide range of water resource development projects have been conducted in Ethiopia in cooperation with donors, local government, and pastoral and farmer communities in areas like the Borana Zone in Ethiopia. The projects’ aims are to improve the availability of good-quality water through WHTs, reduce communities’ vulnerability to rainfall variability and improve their access to water in the dry period. The WHTs that serve to supply water for both domestic use and agriculture include:
• Capping springs which are usually located near top of hills and distribute by gravity. Different structures like reservoir, water points, cattle troughs and overflow storage ponds are constructed and maintained.
• Cisterns with different capacities (e.g., 50m³, 60m³, 70m³ and 100m³) and open field or paved catchments. These structures, mainly built near communities, help to harvest water during rainy season so that water will be stored nearby and used during the dry season. They are also used to store water collected with a rope and bucket, hand pump or, if topography allows, gravity-sustained pipes and, during emergencies, by lorry from other areas.
• Sand dams on seasonal rivers with sandy beds to increase the subsurface water storage accessed by hand-dug wells. These systems, newly introduced (in 2007) from Kenya, can provide good quality dry-season water for domestic use and small scale irrigation.
• Open ponds of different capacities for dry season consumption by livestock and humans.

Research on these WHTs will be directed at the questions on WHT improvement (in terms of both construction and management) and uptake. The main research questions that will be addressed are:
• Do the WHTs help improving access to clean drinking water?
• Do the WHTs help to enable small scale irrigated agriculture for grassland development?• Are the WHTs fit to be replicated by pastoralists?
• What are the main issues concerning the financial, social, and economic sustainability of the WHTs?
• How do the WHTs fit traditional institutions of the local communities?
• Are the WHTs fit to be replicated by pastoralists?

The methodology will be using scenario analyses coupled with global to regional water balance and trade models, in close consultation with project partners and stakeholders to ensure relevance. In particular the outputs will serve for policy and decision support outputs in Work Package 3.


Objectives:

The objectives of WP10 are:
• To analyse the effects of WHTs, e.g., cisterns, open ponds, sand dams and other systems, on water supply to communities for human and livestock consumption and determine their impact on disaster risk reduction (in cooperation with Work Packages 4 and 6)
• To analyse the effects of water harvesting systems on livelihood improvement and food security, and to assess the potential of WH for small scale irrigation (in cooperation with Work Package 5)
• To analyse the uptake and upscaling of WHTs (in cooperation with Work Packages 7 and 8)

Deliverables:

D10.1) Factsheet Ethiopia: Factsheet Ethiopia: A factsheet will be produced describing the RTD activities on water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia and their first results. [month 24]


D10.2) Synthesis report with WHT guidelines: Synthesis report with WHT guidelines: A synthesis report on impact analysis of WHTs on livelihood security, water supply, and disaster risk reduction in Ethiopia will be written. The synthesis includes guidelines and standards for sustainable WHTs. [month 42]


Lead Institution:

Arba Minch University (AMU)


WP Leader:

Adane Abebe

WP11:

South Africa catchment study


Overview:

The primary catchment for WP11 research is that of the Thukela River where both extensive smallholder and large scale commercial irrigated agriculture exists. The catchment provides a pilot site where measured downstream responses can be used to develop, test and verify available modelling systems along the lines of that adopted by Andersson et al (2009).For this catchment,the WHaTeR project will build on earlier research conducted in the area, for example through the Smallholder System Innovations in the Integrated Water Resources Management project undertaken in the Potshini subcatchment of the Thukela. This project generated substantial knowledge and experience that will be of great benefit to the RTD activities of the WHaTeR project.

This Work Package will be undertaken in close collaboration with the consortium partners, SUA and SRC in particular. The methodology is to identify suitable WHT sites, drawing on the GIS based approaches of De Winnaar et al (2007) and Mbilinyi et al., (2007), within the selected study catchment and then to assess the potential impact (positive and negative) on EG&S, including water resources impacts through the application of agro-hydrological modelling system, at a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales in catchments representative of key climatic regions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

WHT systems are small spatial scale interventions that capture short time period rainfall and runoff events and thus have the potential to alter the partitioning of rainfall at the land surface. At different spatial and temporal scales and depending on the extent of uptake, this may have both positive and negative impacts on the generation of ecosystem services and the trade-offs and feedbacks in both upstream and downstream areas. Thus, it is critical to be able to assess the benefits, impacts and potential trade offs of WHTs at a range of spatial scales including those at which large scale commercial irrigation is present. It is also important to consider that ecosystem services result from processes of the hydrological cycle in its entirety, including evaporation and transpiration, infiltration, soil moisture, groundwater recharge and runoff generation as well as streamflow. In particular, the production of agricultural products (biomass) through the use of green water flows is a focus of attention and the simulation of sediment and nutrient yields provides an additional area of innovation. We will then assess the sites identified and consider these explicitly in the configuration of an appropriate agro-hydrological modelling system. Appropriate systems must be applicable at spatial and temporal scales at which WHT systems operate and should include crop estimation modules i.e. agro-hydrological, as crop yield estimates can be compared to historical and current crop yield information, provide an additional verification means and a clear link to assessing the potential EG&S arising from green water flows.

The main research questions addressed by WP11 are:
• What are the upstream-downstream implications of uptake of WHTs?
• How do the various scales interact from field to river catchment with regards to the hydrological functioning and ecosystem services under conditions of WHT uptake?
• What are the trade-offs between water for food and large scale irrigation and water for the environment at field, multiple farms (landscape) and catchment scales under conditions of WHT uptake?

The methodology will be using scenario analyses coupled with global to regional water balance and trade models, in close consultation with project partners and stakeholders to ensure relevance. In particular the outputs will serve for policy and decision support outputs in Work Package 3.


Objectives:

The main objectives of WP11 are:
• Analyse benefits, impacts and potential trade offs of WHTs on hydrological functioning and ecosystem services, based on upstream-downstream interactions (in cooperation with Work Package 4 and 11)
• Develop methods for determining additional ecosystems service synergies and/or trade-offs emerging from WHTs for multiple scales using a catchment as starting point (jointly with Work Package 4 and 12)
• Develop methods and tools to asses the impacts of WHTs on catchment water quantity and quality, including upstream and downstream interactions (jointly with Work Package 4 and 12)
• Provide inputs into the Work Packages 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8

Deliverables:

D11.1) Factsheet South Africa: A factsheet will be produced describing the first results on the RTD activities on water harvesting technologies and their impacts and potential tradeoffs based on upstream-downstream interactions. [month 24]


D11.2) Synthesis report with GIS model and guidelines: A synthesis report will be written on the impacts and potential trade offs of WHTs based on upstream-downstream interactions at catchment level. The synthesis includes a GIS model with guidelines and standards for sustainable WHTs. [month 42]


Lead Institution:

University of Kwazulu-Natal (UKZN)


WP Leader:

Graham Jewitt

WP12:

Tanzania catchment study



Overview:

The main catchment targeted for the RTD activities within the framework of this Work Package is located in the Pangani River Basin. This basin covers an area of about 43,500 km², mostly in Tanzania with approximately 5% in Kenya. In Tanzania, the Basin is spread over four administrative regions: Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Manyara and Tanga. For its 3.7 million Tanzanian inhabitants, water and arable land are arguably the most important. The Basin’s highlands receive substantially more rainfall than its lowlands. Nevertheless, highland farming intensities and the competition for land have meant that farmers have had to start implementing WHTs and irrigating their farms in order to maximise outputs. Those unable to obtain highland land have been forced to seek farmland in lowland areas, where rainfall is substantially less, and where WHTs and supplemental irrigation are of even greater importance. This difficulty has been exacerbated by general rainfall declines within the Basin and global drivers of climate change. The Basin’s changing condition has affected its natural resources on which a diversity of stakeholders relies. Differences in interests and power relations have resulted in all sorts of conflicts related to land tenure and the inequity in access to water among upstream and downstream farmers (IUCN 2003).

The methodology is to identify suitable WHT sites within the selected Pangani River Basin and then to assess and test the potentials for technical improvements of WHTs (in cooperation with Work packages 5, 6 and 7). Data will be gathered for input into the agro-hydrological modelling systems developed under Work Packages 4 and 11 at a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. The methodology will be using scenario analyses coupled with global to regional water balance and trade models, in close consultation with project partners and stakeholders to ensure relevance. In particular the outputs will serve for policy and decision support outputs in Work Package 3.


Objectives:

The main objectives of WP12 are:
• Carry out technological improvements on the existing WHTs in the study catchment (in cooperation with Work Packages 5, 6 and 7)
• Provide inputs into Work Packages 4 and 11 on the impacts and potential trade offs of WHTs based on upstream-downstream interactions
• Provide inputs into the Work Packages 2, 3, and 8

Deliverables:

D12.1) Factsheet Tanzania: A factsheet will be produced describing the RTD activities on water harvesting technologies in Tanzania and their first results. [month 24]

D12.2) Synthesis report with WHT guidelines: A synthesis report will be written on successes, constraints and opportunities of the WHTs and the proposed improvements. The synthesis includes guidelines and standards for sustainable WHTs. [month 42]


Lead Institution:

Sokoine University of Agriculture


WP Leader:

Henry Mahoo

WP13:

Synthesis


Overview:

The project will provide knowledge on WHTs and potential changes in design and performance over past decades as a result of global and regional pressures. The core packages with cross-country and country-based R&D activities will also provide insight into the opportunities and trade offs of WHTs at local and catchment levels. The results of all Work Packages 3 up to 12, including guidelines and recommendations, will be integrated and described in a report (book).


Objectives:

The main objectives of WP13 are:
• integrate the work package results and the formulate conclusions on the potential role of WHTs in strengthening rainfed agriculture, improve rural livelihood and food production and security
• identify opportunities and trade offs of upscaling WHTs in different Sub-Sahara African contexts
• formulate guidelines and criteria and associated decision support system for the development of innovative water harvesting techniques sustainable under global and regional pressures

Deliverables:

D13.1) Publishable overall synthesis report: Publishable synthesis report or book on "Water Harvesting Technologies Revisited" will be produced, describing and discussing the major outcome of the project and including guidelines for sustainable WHTs. The report will be based on the various synthesis reports (of Work Packages 2 to 12) and workshop proceedings. [month 48]

Lead Institution:

Centre for International Cooperation, VU University Amsterdam (VUA-CIS)

WP Leader:

Denyse Snelder

WP14:

Dissemination


Overview:

This Work Package will be concerned with all dissemination activities. The activities are directed at:
1) the exchange of ideas and gathering of inputs of stakeholders on RTD needs, methodologies and results,
2) the exchange of ideas and gathering of inputs of stakeholders on WHT policies,
3) the conduct of trainings on RTD methodologies and WHT development and improvement, and
4) the communication and dissemination of project objectives, project results and policy recommendations to multiple stakeholders including the general public.
Different tools will be used for dissemination, some with focus on specific groups. A total of eight multistakeholder workshops will be organised, i.e., 4 in each target country during the earlier part of the project to communicate with and gather inputs from local stakeholders on the outcome of the WHT revisits, the RTD research needs, methodologies and WHT policies and 4 in each target country during the latter part of the project to communicate and gather feedback on RTD results and WHT guidelines and policies. In addition, trainings on RTD methodologies and WHT development and improvement will be part of the multistakeholder workshops to increase understanding and knowledge on WHTs among stakeholders.

Other tools for dissemination are the posters and brochures that will be produced in different languages. An audiovisual presentation (video) will be developed with inputs and perceptions of various groups of stakeholders engaged in and/or linked to WHTs. This video and the visual material of WHT on-farm testing in the four target coutnries will serve to produce a documentary for policy and educational purposes. Additional funds need to be generated to produce such a video documentary of broadcast quality.

Major and/ or news-relevant events like the kick off of the project, the multistakeholder workshops, the synthesis workshop, and the launch of the documentary will be communicated using mass media tools like radio,TV, and newspapers. Finally, the project website will also be used to communicate news and project activities to the general public, specific WHT stakeholders, WHT developers and scientists, and policy makers.


Objectives:

The main objectives of WP14 are:
. to inform the general public and stakeholders in Europe and Africa about project aims, activities and findings
. to increase understanding, by transferring and exchanging knowledge, on WHTs among local stakeholders(trainings)
. to gather stakeholder inputs and perceptions on WHTs and associated policies serving, amongst others, as feedback to action researchers (workshops)
. to organise and facilitate the synthesis workshop and associated activities (workshop logistics, communication,input gathering on final RTD results, reporting)
. to help facilitate the spread of publications and documents among consortium partners and relevevant stakeholders
. to come up with policy briefs for strategic policy design and reform directed at the creation of enabling conditions for WHT uptake in regional economic and development plans of Sub Saharan Africa
. to (facilitate/perform) communication, networking and linkages to other relevant projects under the EC and other institutions

Deliverables:

D14.1) Mass media presentation and dissemination plan: A plan will be made and implemented to communicate and disseminate project objectives, activities and findings through TV, radio or other mass media tools, using audio-visual materials and press releases [month 2]


D14.2) Flagship brochures and posters: Flagship brochures and posters will be produced in different languages and disseminated to communicate project objectives and activities to the public. [month 12]


D14.3) Multistakeholder workshop proceedings I: Proceedings of the four local multistakeholder workshops,one in each of the target countries, will be produced with the assistance of local consortium partners. The proceedings will report on the dual goal of the workshops i.e., 1) communicating with and gathering inputs from local stakeholders on the outcome of the WHT revisits, the RTD research needs and the WHT policies, and 2)training stakeholders on RTD methodologies and WHT development and improvement. [month 13]


D14.4) Visual presentation WHT stakeholders: A audiovisual presentation (video, dvd) will be produced showing the perceptions of stakeholders on past, current and future Water Harvesting Technologies and their impact on environmental sustainability, community livelihood, and uptake and upscaling. The audiovisual presentation will be based on video materials compiled with the assistance of the consortium partners in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia,South Africa and Tanzania [month 24]


D14.5) Visual presentation of improved WHTs: A visual presentation (film) will be produced based on video materials showing RTD activities and progress over time of improved WHTs established on the ground in the target countries. [month 36]


D14.6) Multistakeholder workshop proceedings II: Proceedings of four local multistakeholder workshops, one in each of the target countries, will be produced with the assistance of local consortium partners. The proceedings will summarize the presentations, discussions and stakeholders' feedback on the RTD results fo far, the WHT guidelines and the WHT policy recommendations and will include a description of the training component conducted. [month 36]

D14.7) Proceedings synthesis workshop: Proceedings of the international synthesis workshop will be produced with a focus on the feedback given by workshop participants on project results including the WHT guidelines and policy recommendations. This feedback will be incorporated in the final project documents (synthesis reports,internal review, policy briefs) during the last 6 months of the project. [month 43]


D14.8) Policy recommendations: Feedback on and perceptions of policies related to WHTs will be gathered during the multistakeholder workshops in the four target countries. In addition, the various RTD synthesis reports (of Work packages 4 up to 12) will formulate policy recommendations. All these recommendations will be gathered and integrated into policy briefs for dissemination. [month 44]


Lead Institution:

Southern and Eastern Africa Rainwater Network (SearNet)


WP Leader:

Maimbo Malesu