Tanzania catchment study


The main catchment targeted for the RTD activities within the framework of this Work Package is located in the Pangani River Basin. This basin covers an area of about 43,500 km², mostly in Tanzania with approximately 5% in Kenya. In Tanzania, the Basin is spread over four administrative regions: Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Manyara and Tanga. For its 3.7 million Tanzanian inhabitants, water and arable land are arguably the most important. The Basin’s highlands receive substantially more rainfall than its lowlands. Nevertheless, highland farming intensities and the competition for land have meant that farmers have had to start implementing WHTs and irrigating their farms in order to maximise outputs. Those unable to obtain highland land have been forced to seek farmland in lowland areas, where rainfall is substantially less, and where WHTs and supplemental irrigation are of even greater importance. This difficulty has been exacerbated by general rainfall declines within the Basin and global drivers of climate change. The Basin’s changing condition has affected its natural resources on which a diversity of stakeholders relies. Differences in interests and power relations have resulted in all sorts of conflicts related to land tenure and the inequity in access to water among upstream and downstream farmers (IUCN 2003).

The methodology is to identify suitable WHT sites within the selected Pangani River Basin and then to assess and test the potentials for technical improvements of WHTs (in cooperation with Work packages 5, 6 and 7). Data will be gathered for input into the agro-hydrological modelling systems developed under Work Packages 4 and 11 at a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. The methodology will be using scenario analyses coupled with global to regional water balance and trade models, in close consultation with project partners and stakeholders to ensure relevance. In particular the outputs will serve for policy and decision support outputs in Work Package 3.


The main objectives of WP12 are:
• Carry out technological improvements on the existing WHTs in the study catchment (in cooperation with Work Packages 5, 6 and 7)
• Provide inputs into Work Packages 4 and 11 on the impacts and potential trade offs of WHTs based on upstream-downstream interactions
• Provide inputs into the Work Packages 2, 3, and 8


D12.1) Factsheet Tanzania: A factsheet will be produced describing the RTD activities on water harvesting technologies in Tanzania and their first results. [month 24]

D12.2) Synthesis report with WHT guidelines: A synthesis report will be written on successes, constraints and opportunities of the WHTs and the proposed improvements. The synthesis includes guidelines and standards for sustainable WHTs. [month 42]

Lead Institution:

Sokoine University of Agriculture

WP Leader:

Henry Mahoo